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2.Ethical SEO

3.Spider's view

4.SEO spam

5.General topics


2.4 Keywords

Keyword optimization, the art of choosing the correct keywords, is one of the most important things related to SEO; they are what search strings are matched against.
Consequently, when you care about optimizing your website, you must sit down, take time and read all the page of your website. For every page is good to write down a list of keywords that you suppose are relevant enough to the content; it does not matter if there are some keywords for more then one page but it should not be exactly the same list for two different pages, in that case you would have two different pages that have to be merged or you chose the wrong keywords.
Then you must verify which search terms are frequently used by the users, there are plenty of free tools to do that and so, you will be able to drop the words, which are not used, from the list. On the contrary if other words look like they are used quite often, and they are relevant to your page content, then, it might be a good idea to consider adding them.
At this point you must also get rid of the very competitive single words: it would be very difficult achieving a good result with words like "dog", "computer", "holiday", "book" and the like; there are hundreds of thousands of sites targeting them and even with excellent SEO skills, they are very tough to conquer, in particular if you think to use just ethical SEO techniques.
It is a more realistic goal trying to achieve a top ten ranking in a two or even three word search string, as a result you must add to the list a second word to the single keywords. Furthermore if you manage to describe better the argument of the page you may get users who are more interested, for example if you chose "adopt a dog" instead of simply "dog" you might have few visitors but the target audience will probably more interested in your information.
Finally you can add to the list some synonyms; since in the major search engines they are automatically added, you have not to exaggerate.
Now that the list is complete you must choose two or three main keywords and other three or four minor ones. Then you have to use again free tools to verify the current density of these keywords in the page. You want to have a density of 3%-7% for the major keywords and 1-2% for the minor ones, so you will need to add them to the page or eliminate according to the current percentage.
Obviously it is not the same wherever the keyword appears in the page: the main keywords have to appear in the first paragraph of the page, better if in the first few lines. In particular the main keyword has to appear in the title of the page, which cannot be left empty or the page will drop in the result list; the title should be long about 5-6 words and the keyword has to be at the beginning.
You must also consider the headings: in particular <h1> and <h2> carry a lot of weight. A good compromise is needed, headings are useful for displaying information, stuffing them with too many word may disorient the reader. You can try to reduce the headings size with CSS but extreme measures, such as the use of {display: none}, may get us banned. I will analyse this technique in the chapter 4.4 "CSS tricks".
In particular Yahoo considers important the main keyword be included in the domain, directory and file names. You should carefully decide the name of the website evaluating which words to use and trying to achieve a trade-off between the usability and the SEO principles, hence a 5 words domain name will be a nightmare to remember but using just one word won't be good in the ranking list. File names and directory names are also important. If the domain name cannot include all the main keywords for all the pages of the website, you must choose for the file of every page accurately the name. If having a general name, instead a keyword rich one, for the domain gives to the website a better flexibility, the name of the HTML file should be the main keyword for that particular page.
Finally also bold text is given more weight than ordinary text but not as much as headings.